Athos, Mount

   The rugged and picturesque peninsula, easternmost of the three promontories of Chalkidike (q.v.), where the famous Athonian monasteries are located. At present there are 20 monasteries, of which 17 are Greek, one is Russian (Panteleemon Monastery), one is Serbian (Hilandar Monastery [q.v.]), and one is Bulgarian (Zographou Monastery). At the end of the peninsula is Mount Athos, hence the name (called Ayion Oros [Holy Mountain], in Greek). When monasticism (q.v.) began on Athos is debated, but certainly by the ninth century monks were living there as hermits (q.v.), and in groups. Euthymios the Younger founded the first lavra (q.v.) during the reign of Michael III. In the reign of Basil I (q.v.), Kolobou, the first monastery, was founded. The construction of the Great Lavra (q.v.) in 963 by Athanasios of Athos (q.v.) was a major event, for it was the first large-scale cenobitic (q.v.) monastery founded, and it had an imperial benefactor, Nikephoros II Phokas (q.v.). This set the pattern for subsequent imperial support and protection. By the 11th century the number of monasteries had multiplied to over 40. Monks from all over the Orthodox world came, including Georgians (who founded Iveron [q.v.] in 979), Armenians, Serbs, Italians, Russians, and Bulgarians. The independence of the monasteries increased along with their wealth, which was aided by acquiring properties outside of Athos. It survived Latin rule, the raids of the Catalan Grand Company (q.v.), and conquest in 1430 by the Ottomans (q.v.), who confirmed the peninsula's independence in return for an annual tribute. The Athonian monasteries continue to thrive, as a living legacy of Byzantium (q.v.) to the modern world.

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

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  • Athos, Mount — [ath′äs, ā′thäs] 1. autonomous monastic district occupying the tip of the easternmost prong of the Chalcidice peninsula, NE Greece: 130 sq mi (337 sq km); pop. 1,500 2. mountain in this district: 6,670 ft (2,033 m) * * * Mountain, northern Greece …   Universalium

  • Athos, Mount — • The mountain that the architect Dinocrates offered to turn into a statue of Alexander the Great with a city in one hand and in the other a perennially flowing spring Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Athos, Mount — [ath′äs, ā′thäs] 1. autonomous monastic district occupying the tip of the easternmost prong of the Chalcidice peninsula, NE Greece: 130 sq mi (337 sq km); pop. 1,500 2. mountain in this district: 6,670 ft (2,033 m) …   English World dictionary

  • Athos,Mount — Ath·os (ăthʹŏs, āʹthŏs, äʹthôs), Mount A peak, about 2,034 m (6,670 ft) high, of northeast Greece. It is the site of the virtually independent monastic community of Mount Athos, originally founded in the tenth century. * * * …   Universalium

  • Athos, Mount — geographical name mountain NE Greece at E end of Acte Peninsula; site of a number of monasteries …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Athos, Mount — …   Useful english dictionary

  • Mount Athos — • The mountain that the architect Dinocrates offered to turn into a statue of Alexander the Great with a city in one hand and in the other a perennially flowing spring Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Mount Athos     Mount Ath …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Mount Athos — Ἅγιον Ὄρος Agion Oros (Αυτόνομη Μοναστικὴ Πολιτεία Ἁγίου Ὄρους) Aftonomi Monastiki Politia Agiou Orous location of Mount Athos in Greece …   Wikipedia

  • mount — mount1 mountable, adj. mountless, adj. /mownt/, v.t. 1. to go up; climb; ascend: to mount stairs. 2. to get up on (a platform, a horse, etc.). 3. to set or place at an elevation: to mount a house on stilts. 4. to furnish with a horse or other… …   Universalium

  • Athos Range — …   Wikipedia

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